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xii American Carrier Air Power at the Dawn of a New Century ness is no longer how many aircraft it takes to neutralize a single tar-.
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Navy was operating 6, ships on V-J Day in August Doctrine had significantly shifted by the end of the war. Navy had followed in the footsteps of the navies of Great Britain and Germany which favored concentrated groups of battleships as their main offensive naval weapons. The Pearl Harbor attack destroyed or took out of action a significant number of U. Navy battleships. This placed much of the burden of retaliating against the Japanese on the small number of aircraft carriers.
Navy to continue its technological advancement by developing new weapons systems, ships, and aircraft. The navy was a major participant in the Vietnam War , blockaded Cuba during the Cuban Missile Crisis , and, through the use of ballistic missile submarines , became an important aspect of the United States' nuclear strategic deterrence policy. Navy conducted various combat operations in the Persian Gulf against Iran in and , most notably Operation Praying Mantis.
Coast Guard ships. Two examples are the Palomares B crash incident and the subsequent search for missing hydrogen bombs, and Task Force 71 of the Seventh Fleet's operation in search for Korean Air Lines Flight , shot down by the Soviets on 1 September When a crisis confronts the nation, the first question often asked by policymakers is: 'What naval forces are available and how fast can they be on station? Navy continues to be a major support to U.
Since the end of the Cold War , it has shifted its focus from preparations for large-scale war with the Soviet Union to special operations and strike missions in regional conflicts. Development continues on new ships and weapons, including the Gerald R. Ford -class aircraft carrier and the Littoral combat ship.
Because of its size, weapons technology, and ability to project force far from U. Navy remains a potent asset for the United States. Moreover, it is the principal means through which the U. In , the U. Navy joined with the U. Marine Corps and U. Coast Guard to adopt a new maritime strategy called A Cooperative Strategy for 21st Century Seapower that raises the notion of prevention of war to the same philosophical level as the conduct of war. This new strategy charts a course for the Navy, Coast Guard, and Marine Corps to work collectively with each other and international partners to prevent these crises from occurring or reacting quickly should one occur to prevent negative impacts on the U.
In , Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Gary Roughead, noted that demands on the Navy have grown as the fleet has shrunk and that in the face of declining budgets in the future, the U. Navy must rely even more on international partnerships. In its budget request, the navy focused on retaining all eleven big deck carriers, at the expense of cutting numbers of smaller ships and delaying the SSBN replacement. One significant change in U. Navy patrol boat near Kuwait Naval Base in The most senior naval officer is the Chief of Naval Operations CNO , a four-star admiral who is immediately under and reports to the Secretary of the Navy.
At the same time, the Chief of Naval Operations is one of the Joint Chiefs of Staff , which is the second-highest deliberative body of the armed forces after the United States National Security Council , although it only plays an advisory role to the President and does not nominally form part of the chain of command. The Secretary of the Navy and Chief of Naval Operations are responsible for organizing, recruiting, training, and equipping the Navy so that it is ready for operation under the command of the unified combat command commanders.
There are nine components in the operating forces of the U. The United States Second Fleet was deactivated in September but reestablished in August amid heightened tensions with Russia. Shore establishments exist to support the mission of the fleet through the use of facilities on land.
However, the Marine Corps is a distinct, separate service branch  with its own uniformed service chief — the Commandant of the Marine Corps, a four-star general. The Marine Corps depends on the Navy for medical support dentists , doctors , nurses , medical technicians known as corpsmen and religious support chaplains. Thus Navy officers and enlisted sailors fulfill these roles.
When attached to Marine Corps units deployed to an operational environment they generally wear Marine camouflage uniforms, but otherwise, they wear Navy dress uniforms unless they opt to conform to Marine Corps grooming standards. In the operational environment, as an expeditionary force specializing in amphibious operations, Marines often embark on Navy ships to conduct operations from beyond territorial waters. Some Marine aviation squadrons, usually fixed-wing assigned to carrier air wings train and operate alongside Navy squadrons; they fly similar missions and often fly sorties together under the cognizance of the CAG.
Aviation is where the Navy and Marines share the most common ground since aircrews are guided in their use of aircraft by standard procedures outlined in a series of publications known as NATOPS manuals. The United States Coast Guard , in its peacetime role with the Department of Homeland Security , fulfills its law enforcement and rescue role in the maritime environment.
It provides Law Enforcement Detachments LEDETs to Navy vessels, where they perform arrests and other law enforcement duties during naval boarding and interdiction missions. In times of war, the Coast Guard operates as a service in the Navy. The Coast Guard also jointly staffs the Navy's naval coastal warfare groups and squadrons the latter of which were known as harbor defense commands until late , which oversee defense efforts in foreign littoral combat and inshore areas.
The United States Navy has over , personnel, approximately a quarter of whom are in ready reserve. Of those on active duty, more than eighty percent are enlisted sailors and around fifteen percent are commissioned officers ; the rest are midshipmen of the United States Naval Academy and midshipmen of the Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps at over universities around the country and officer candidates at the Navy's Officer Candidate School.
Enlisted sailors complete basic military training at boot camp and then are sent to complete training for their individual careers. Sailors prove they have mastered skills and deserve responsibilities by completing Personnel Qualification Standards PQS tasks and examinations. Many qualifications are denoted on a sailor's uniform with U. Navy badges and insignia. The uniforms of the U. Navy have evolved gradually since the first uniform regulations for officers were issued in on the formation of the Navy Department.
The predominant colors of U. Navy uniforms are navy blue and white. Navy uniforms were based on Royal Navy uniforms of the time, and have tended to follow that template. The commissioned officer ranks of the U. Navy are divided into three categories: junior officers , senior officers , and flag officers. Junior officers are those officers in pay grades O-1 to O-4, while senior officers are those in pay grades O-5 and O-6, and flag officers are those in pay grades of O-7 and above.
Navy officers serve either as a line officer or as a staff corps officer. Line officers wear an embroidered gold star above their rank of the naval service dress uniform while staff corps officers and commissioned warrant officers wear unique specialty devices. The warrant and chief warrant officer ranks are technical specialists who directs specific activities essential to the proper operation of the ship, which also require commissioned officer authority. Warrant officers should not be confused with the limited duty officer LDO in the Navy. Warrant officers perform duties that are directly related to their previous enlisted service and specialized training.
This allows the Navy to capitalize on the experience of warrant officers without having to frequently transition them to other duty assignments for advancement. Sailors in pay grades E-1 through E-3 are considered to be in apprenticeships. E-7 to E-9 are still considered Petty Officers, but are considered a separate community within the Navy. They have separate berthing and dining facilities where feasible , wear separate uniforms, and perform separate duties.
United States Navy
A CMC is considered to be the senior-most enlisted service member within a command, and is the special assistant to the Commanding Officer in all matters pertaining to the health, welfare, job satisfaction, morale, utilization, advancement and training of the command's enlisted personnel. CMC insignia are similar to the insignia for Master Chief, except that the rating symbol is replaced by an inverted five-point star, reflecting a change in their rating from their previous rating i.
Insignia and badges of the United States Navy are military "badges" issued by the United States Department of the Navy to naval service members who achieve certain qualifications and accomplishments while serving on both active and reserve duty in the United States Navy. Most naval aviation insignia are also permitted for wear on uniforms of the United States Marine Corps. As described in Chapter 5 of U. Navy Uniform Regulations,  "badges" are categorized as breast insignia usually worn immediately above and below ribbons and identification badges usually worn at breast pocket level.
Insignia come in the form of metal "pin-on devices" worn on formal uniforms and embroidered "tape strips" worn on work uniforms. For the purpose of this article, the general term "insignia" shall be used to describe both, as it is done in Navy Uniform Regulations. The term "badge", although used ambiguously in other military branches and in informal speak to describe any pin, patch, or tab, is exclusive to identification badges  and authorized marksmanship awards  according to the language in Navy Uniform Regulations, Chapter 5.
Below are just a few of the many badges maintained by the Navy. The rest can be seen in the article cited at the top of this section:. The size, complexity, and international presence of the United States Navy requires a large number of navy installations to support its operations. While the majority of bases are located inside the United States itself, the Navy maintains a significant number of facilities abroad, either in U.
There is also a naval base in Charleston, South Carolina. The main U. Navy, home to the Chief of Naval Operations , and is headquarters for numerous commands. The other major collection of naval bases on the west coast is in Puget Sound , Washington. Among them, NS Everett is one of the newer bases and the navy states that it is its most modern facility. The naval presence in Hawaii is centered on NS Pearl Harbor , which hosts the headquarters of the Pacific Fleet and many of its subordinate commands.
Guam , an island strategically located in the Western Pacific Ocean, maintains a sizable U. Navy presence, including NB Guam. The westernmost U. Puerto Rico in the Caribbean formerly housed NS Roosevelt Roads , which was shut down in shortly after the controversial closure of the live ordnance training area on nearby Vieques Island. The largest overseas base is the United States Fleet Activities Yokosuka , Japan,  which serves as the home port for the navy's largest forward-deployed fleet and is a significant base of operations in the Western Pacific.
Naval Forces Central Command and U. Fifth Fleet. NS Guantanamo Bay in Cuba is the oldest overseas facility and has become known in recent years as the location of a detention camp for suspected al-Qaeda operatives. The names of commissioned ships of the U. All ships in the navy inventory are placed in the Naval Vessel Register , which is part of "the Navy List" required by article 29 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Vessels that are removed from the register prior to disposal are said to be stricken from the register. The navy also maintains a reserve fleet of inactive vessels that are maintained for reactivation in times of need.
Navy was one of the first to install nuclear reactors aboard naval vessels;  today, nuclear energy powers all active U. In the case of the Nimitz -class carrier, two naval reactors give the ship almost unlimited range and provide enough electrical energy to power a city of , people. Navy previously operated nuclear-powered cruisers , but all have been decommissioned.
Navy had identified a need for combat ships in early s, but under its plans at the time could only afford to An aircraft carrier is typically deployed along with a host of additional vessels, forming a carrier strike group. The supporting ships, which usually include three or four Aegis -equipped cruisers and destroyers, a frigate, and two attack submarines, are tasked with protecting the carrier from air, missile, sea, and undersea threats as well as providing additional strike capabilities themselves.
Ready logistics support for the group is provided by a combined ammunition, oiler, and supply ship. Modern carriers are named after American admirals and politicians, usually presidents. The Navy has a statutory requirement for a minimum of 11 aircraft carriers. Ford , that is currently undergoing extensive systems and technologies testing until around Amphibious assault ships are the centerpieces of US amphibious warfare and fulfill the same power projection role as aircraft carriers except that their striking force centers on land forces instead of aircraft.
They deliver, command, coordinate, and fully support all elements of a 2,strong Marine Expeditionary Unit in an amphibious assault using both air and amphibious vehicles. Recently, amphibious assault ships have begun to be deployed as the core of an expeditionary strike group , which usually consists of an additional amphibious transport dock and dock landing ship for amphibious warfare and an Aegis-equipped cruiser and destroyer, frigate, and attack submarine for group defense.
Amphibious assault ships are typically named after World War II aircraft carriers. Amphibious transport docks are warships that embark, transport, and land Marines, supplies, and equipment in a supporting role during amphibious warfare missions. With a landing platform, amphibious transport docks also have the capability to serve as secondary aviation support for an expeditionary group. Amphibious transport docks are typically named after U.
The dock landing ship is a medium amphibious transport that is designed specifically to support and operate LCACs, though it is able to operate other amphibious assault vehicles in the United States inventory as well. Dock landing ships are normally deployed as a component of an expeditionary strike group's amphibious assault contingent, operating as a secondary launch platform for LCACs.
All dock landing ships are named after cities or important places in U. Naval history. Modern guided missile cruisers were developed out of a need to counter the anti-ship missile threat facing the United States Navy. Ticonderoga -class cruisers were the first to be equipped with Aegis and were put to use primarily as anti-air and anti-missile defense in a battle force protection role.
Later developments of vertical launch systems and the Tomahawk missile gave cruisers additional long-range land and sea strike capability, making them capable of both offensive and defensive battle operations. The Ticonderoga class is the only active class of cruiser. All cruisers in this class are named after battles.
Destroyers are multi-mission medium surface ships capable of sustained performance in anti-air, anti-submarine, anti-ship, and offensive strike operations. Like cruisers, guided missile destroyers are primarily focused on surface strikes using Tomahawk missiles and fleet defense through Aegis and the Standard missile. When deployed with a carrier strike group or expeditionary strike group, destroyers and their fellow Aegis-equipped cruisers are primarily tasked with defending the fleet while providing secondary strike capabilities.
With very few exceptions, destroyers are named after U. Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard heroes. Modern U. They are designed to protect friendly ships against hostile submarines in low to medium threat environments, using torpedoes and LAMPS helicopters. Independently, frigates are able to conduct counterdrug missions and other maritime interception operations. As in the case of destroyers, frigates are named after U. As of autumn , the U. Navy has retired its most recent class of frigates, and expects that by the Littoral Combat Ships LCS will assume many of the duties the frigate had with the fleet.
The LCS is a class of relatively small surface vessels intended for operations in the littoral zone close to shore. It was "envisioned to be a networked, agile, stealthy surface combatant capable of defeating anti-access and asymmetric threats in the littorals". The ship is easy to reconfigure for different roles, including anti-submarine warfare , mine countermeasures , anti-surface warfare , intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance, homeland defense, maritime intercept, special operations, and logistics, all by swapping mission-specific modules as needed.
The LCS program is still relatively new as of with only ten active ships, but the navy has announced plans for up to 32 ships. See: List of littoral combat ships The navy has announced that a further 20 vessels to be built after that will be redesignated as 'frigates'. She serves as a tribute to the heritage of the Navy, and occasionally sails for commemorative events such as Independence Day and various victories during the War of Constitution is currently the oldest commissioned warship afloat.
Mine countermeasures vessels are a combination of minehunters , a naval vessel that actively detects and destroys individual naval mines , and minesweepers , which clear mined areas as a whole, without prior detection of the mines. The navy has approximately a dozen of these in active service, but the mine countermeasure MCM role is also being assumed by the incoming classes of littoral combat ships.
A patrol boat is a relatively small naval vessel generally designed for coastal defense duties.
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There have been many designs for patrol boats, though the navy currently only has a single class. They may be operated by a nation's navy or coast guard, and may be intended for marine " blue water " or estuarine or river " brown water " environments. The Navy has approximately a dozen in active service, which are mainly used in the littoral regions of the Persian Gulf , but have also been used for home port patrols and drug interdiction missions.
The navy's current class of patrol boats have names based on weather phenomena. All current and planned U. Navy submarines are nuclear-powered, as only nuclear propulsion allows for the combination of stealth and long duration, high-speed sustained underwater movement that makes modern nuclear submarines so vital to a modern blue-water navy. Navy operates three types: ballistic missile submarines , guided missile submarines , and attack submarines. Navy nuclear ballistic missile submarines carry the stealthiest leg of the U. These submarines have only one mission: to carry and, if called upon, to launch the Trident nuclear missile.
The primary missions of attack and guided missile submarines in the U. Navy are peacetime engagement, surveillance and intelligence, special operations, precision strikes, and control of the seas. Attack and guided missile submarines have several tactical missions, including sinking ships and other subs, launching cruise missiles , gathering intelligence, and assisting in special operations.
As with other classes of naval vessels, most U. The boats of the current U. As the four current U. The members of the oldest currently-commissioned attack submarine class, the Los Angeles class , are typically named for cities.cars.cleantechnica.com/guia-basica-del-comic.php
American Carrier Air Power at the Dawn of a New Century
The follow-on Seawolf class ' three submarines— Seawolf , Connecticut and Jimmy Carter —share no consistent naming scheme. With the current Virginia -class attack submarines, the U. Navy has extended the Ohio class' state-based naming scheme to these submarines. Attack submarines prior to the Los Angeles class were named for denizens of the deep, while pre- Ohio -class ballistic missile submarines were named for famous Americans and foreigners with notable connections to the United States.
Carrier-based aircraft are able to strike air, sea, and land targets far from a carrier strike group while protecting friendly forces from enemy aircraft, ships, and submarines. In peacetime, aircraft's ability to project the threat of sustained attack from a mobile platform on the seas gives United States leaders significant diplomatic and crisis-management options.
Aircraft additionally provide logistics support to maintain the navy's readiness and, through helicopters, supply platforms with which to conduct search and rescue , special operations , anti-submarine warfare ASW , and anti-surface warfare ASuW. Navy began to research the use of aircraft at sea in the s, with Lieutenant Theodore G. Navy aircraft also played a significant role in conflicts during the following Cold War years, with the F-4 Phantom II and the F Tomcat becoming military icons of the era.
The F Lightning II is presently under development and was scheduled to replace the C and D versions of the Hornet beginning in The Aircraft Investment Plan sees naval aviation growing from 30 percent of current aviation forces to half of all procurement funding over the next three decades. Current U. Navy shipboard weapons systems are almost entirely focused on missiles, both as a weapon and as a threat. In an offensive role, missiles are intended to strike targets at long distances with accuracy and precision.
Because they are unmanned weapons, missiles allow for attacks on heavily defended targets without risk to human pilots. Land strikes are the domain of the BGM Tomahawk , which was first deployed in the s and is continually being updated to increase its capabilities. For anti-ship strikes, the navy's dedicated missile is the Harpoon Missile. To defend against enemy missile attack, the navy operates a number of systems that are all coordinated by the Aegis combat system.
Medium-long range defense is provided by the Standard Missile 2 , which has been deployed since the s.
The Standard missile doubles as the primary shipboard anti-aircraft weapon and is undergoing development for use in theater ballistic missile defense. In addition to missiles, the navy employs Mark 46 and Mark 50 torpedoes and various types of naval mines. Naval fixed-wing aircraft employ much of the same weapons as the United States Air Force for both air-to-air and air-to-surface combat.
For surface strikes, navy aircraft utilize a combination of missiles, smart bombs, and dumb bombs.
Carrier strike group - Wikipedia
Unguided munitions such as dumb bombs and cluster bombs make up the rest of the weapons deployed by fixed-wing aircraft. Rotary aircraft weapons are focused on anti-submarine warfare ASW and light to medium surface engagements. To combat submarines, helicopters use Mark 46 and Mark 50 torpedoes. Against small watercraft, they utilize Hellfire and Penguin air to surface missiles.
Nuclear weapons in the U. Navy arsenal are deployed through ballistic missile submarines and aircraft. It can be released through free-fall or parachute and can be set to detonate in the air or on the ground. The current naval jack of the United States is the Union Jack , a small blue flag emblazoned with the stars of the 50 states. England directed all U. While Secretary England directed the change on 31 May , many ships chose to shift colors later that year in remembrance of the first anniversary of the September 11, attacks.
The Union Jack, however, remained in use with vessels of the U. A jack of similar design to the Union Jack was used in , with 13 stars arranged in a 3—2—3—2—3 pattern. When a ship is moored or anchored, the jack is flown from the bow of the ship while the ensign is flown from the stern. When underway, the ensign is raised on the mainmast. Navy ships and craft returned to flying the Union Jack effective 4 June The date for reintroduction of the jack commemorates the Battle of Midway, which began on 4 June Many past and present United States historical figures have served in the navy.
Leahy , Ernest J.
King , Chester W. Nimitz , and William F. Halsey Jr. The first American president who served in the navy was John F. Kennedy who commanded the famous PT Others included Lyndon B. Both Theodore Roosevelt and Franklin D. Roosevelt were the Assistant Secretary of the Navy prior to their presidencies. Many members of Congress served in the navy, notably U.
Other notable former members of the U. Navy include astronauts, entertainers, authors and professional athletes. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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For other uses, see USN disambiguation. Naval warfare branch of US Armed Forces. See list. Main article: History of the United States Navy. See also: Union Navy. Trost . Main article: Structure of the United States Navy. Main article: List of units of the United States Navy.
Main article: United States Marine Corps. Main article: United States Coast Guard. Main article: Personnel of the United States Navy. See also: Uniforms of the United States Navy. Appointments no longer made to these ranks in peacetime. Note 1: Pin-on insignia for paygrades O-2 and O-1 shown above are incorrectly depicted as U. Navy, Marine Corps and Coast Guard use insignia that do not have beveled edges. For comparison, the O-3 insignia is correctly depicted with non-beveled bars it also has the connecting links shown near the ends of the bars rather than towards the center.
The six star insignia is conjectural, as no Fleet Admirals were appointed while Admiral Dewey was alive. Main article: Warrant officer United States. See also: Badges of the United States Navy. Main article: List of United States Navy installations. Main article: Equipment of the United States Navy. Main article: List of aircraft carriers of the United States Navy. Main article: List of United States Navy amphibious warfare ships. Main article: List of cruisers of the United States Navy. Main article: List of destroyers of the United States Navy.
Main article: List of frigates of the United States Navy. See also: Littoral combat ship. Main article: List of mine warfare vessels of the United States Navy. Main article: List of patrol vessels of the United States Navy. Main article: Submarines in the United States Navy. Main article: List of United States Navy weapons. For a more comprehensive list, see List of United States Navy people. Naval History and Heritage Command. Archived from the original on 28 April Retrieved 6 July Archived from the original on 14 June Retrieved 28 August Flightglobal : Retrieved 13 June United States Navy.
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